The battery of electric bicycles plays a very important role, since it is responsible for supplying energy to the motor that will provide us with support during our ride.
Currently the vast majority of those that can be purchased are made of lithium due to its advantages. They are lighter in weight, can be recharged at any time without waiting for them to discharge, and last longer.
The capacity of the batteries is expressed in Watt hours (Wh), which is calculated by multiplying the Voltage (V) by the Ampere hours (Ah). There are batteries from 300 Wh to 700 Wh. The higher the number, the greater the autonomy, although this depends on other factors such as the efficiency of the motor, level of assistance, weight to be moved, etc.
In addition to the cells of which they are composed, the batteries have a very important component, the Battery Management System or BMS. This device is in charge of controlling many safety tasks such as preventing the battery from overcharging, overheating, correct charging and discharging, avoiding uneven degradation of the cells, etc.
Despite the BMS it is important to know that all batteries degrade with time and use. Time and use is given by the quality of the cells that integrate it. Manufacturers such as Bosch or Yamaha assure that their batteries are capable of withstanding 500 charge cycles with a degradation of less than 20%. This is equivalent to about 40,000 km of useful life.
It is the part in charge of giving the power that will help you in your journeys. The power is expressed in Watts (W) and the acceleration in Newton / meters. Most of them have a nominal power of 250 Watts.
For the motor to work properly, a controller is necessary. It is in charge of receiving and executing the orders received both from the accelerator or display and from the pedal-assist system
There are 3 main types of motors. Motor in the front hub, motor in the rear hub and central motor.
The central motors are integrated into the bicycle frame and the power is distributed to the rear wheel. They provide better weight balance as the battery and motor are centered.
The front ones tend to distribute the weight better when the battery is coupled to the carrier.
The rear ones allow better maneuverability and grip.
Types of electric bikes
Accelerator:It consists of a device that is usually attached to the handlebars and works like the accelerator of a car or motorcycle. They can be trigger, fist, or button. When this device is activated, the battery delivers energy to the motor and it works. With this electrification system it is not necessary to pedal to make it work.
The disadvantage is that for the purposes of the DGT the system is not considered an electric bicycle but an electric moped, so to circulate legally it is necessary to have a license plate, insurance, and the relevant permits to circulate.
Pedaling assistance Pedal assistance only activates the motor when pedaling. There are two types, with effort sensor and cadence sensor
Effort sensor: the motor turns the wheels with more or less power depending on the force you exert on the pedals. The greater the force, the greater the power.
Cadence sensor: It works through a sensor that makes the motor turn when it detects movement in the cranks. The force delivered by the motor depends on the level of assistance you have selected.
This type of electrification is considered a bicycle provided that:
Motor assistance is provided only when pedaling.
Pedaling assistance is limited to 25 km/h.
The nominal power provided by the assistance (motor) is 250 W maximum.
Therefore, they do not require registration or any special permit and can circulate in the same places as a conventional bicycle.
An electric bicycle, or ebike, is a bicycle to which a motor has been added to help it move forward. Power is supplied by a battery with variable autonomies ranging from 30 to more than 100 kilometers. They can be recharged by mains or solar panel.
Advantages of electric bicycles
Electric bicycles enjoy all the advantages of a conventional bicycle with the main addition of having the help of a motor to move forward.
- They are non-polluting vehicles, since their motor is 100% electric. The energy to charge the batteries can come from clean energies such as solar or wind power.
- You can move easily and effortlessly around the city, either on the road or on the bike path.
- You won't have any parking problems. They fit perfectly in bicycle parking spaces.
- They do not require insurance, license plates or special permits. *
- You exercise almost without noticing it.
* Electric bicycles with pedal assistance and with a motor of no more than 250 W and a speed of less than 25 km/h
Capri E-Bike Project
The CAPRI+e project has been funded by Impulsa in the Impulsa 2019 Incentive Grants program in the Future City Prototypes Line.
The project CAPRI +e pursues the manufacture of different prototypes of the battery system for electric bicycle, on which concept tests will be carried out for validation in an operational environment. The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of the different battery alternatives optimized and tailored to the needs of the electric bicycle.
"The electric bicycle has become the fastest growing vehicle since 2020."